Atlantis (in Greek, τλαντς νσος, "island of Atlas") is the name of a legendary island first mentioned in two dialogues of Plato, Critias Timaios and

In Plato's account, Atlantis was a naval power, based on an island or continent beyond the columns of Hercules (Gibraltar), who conquered large areas of Africa and Western Europe. After an unsuccessful attempt to invade Athens, Atlantis sank into the ocean. This event could have happened 9,000 years before Solon (about 9500 BC)

Atlantis in Plato's dialogues is usually considered a myth created by him to reveal his political theories. He advanced the hypothesis that the sources of inspiration are the moments in history as the Thera eruption or the Trojan War, or of his contemporary events as the settlement Helike destruction in 373 BC or failed invasion of Sicily by the Athenians in 415-413 BC

The possible existence of a genuine Atlantis was intensely debated since antiquity, but it was usually rejected. Little known in the Middle Ages, was rediscovered by the humanists legend in the modern period. At present, Atlantis is found in popular culture, from science fiction works from movies and video games, and study its existence is the subject of a new science called atlantologie.                                                                   

Plato's account

The first known references to Atlantis are Plato's dialogues Critias Timaios and written in 360 BC A participant in the dialogue, Critias, a disciple of Socrates, is the one who tells the legend of Atlantis. For unknown reasons, the unfinished Critias, and it was speculated that the first two of a trilogy, which also contains a third, Hermocrate.

In Timaios, Critias, an Egyptian priest tells what he would have told Solon a trip to Egypt. According to his historical knowledge Egyptians stretching far back in time, knowing her own unknown facts of Athenian history of Athens. He further stated that Athens was able to defeat a large invading army, coming from an island located in the Atlantic, which was "greater than Asia and Libya together." Shortly after his victory, as a result of natural disasters the entire string Athenian army was destroyed and the island of Atlantis sank into the ocean.

In Critias, unfinished dialogue, are presented in detail the history, geography and culture of Atlantis, along with history, social organization and culture of ancient Athens. After Critias, the old gods were divided between them and the earth, Atlantis is attributed to Poseidon. Poseidon fell in love with a mortal named Clito on this island, they had 10 children. The largest, Atlas, gave the name of the region, and became its first king. Further, Critias describes in detail the geography of the island, reminiscent of natural riches, the mild climate, and monumental buildings of the Atlanteans. Then gives details about the social organization of the Atlanteans and their habits. Remember then the divine presence in Atlanta, which caused them to comply with ethical rules and live a righteous life. However, argues that the divine nature was still low due to mixing with ordinary mortals, and Atlanteans became proud and began to violate laws. Zeus, seeing them, the gods gathered around him to talk. At this point, the dialogue Critias ends, and no one knows what follows.

Atlantis approaches the problem in history

In addition to the two dialogues of Plato, there are no other primary sources of ancient Atlantis, which means that every mention of it is based on Plato's texts.

Atlantis was considered fictional by many ancient philosophers such as Aristotle (as Strabo). Others considered it a story based on fact. crunch philosopher, a disciple of Xeocrate, which in turn was a disciple of Plato, tried to prove the existence of Atlantis. His commentary on his Timaios lost, but another historian, Proclus, recounts his trip to Egypt three hundred years after Solon. The Temple of Sais Neilt he would have found columns covered by hieroglyphics, which show the history of Atlantis as a platonic relationship.

All Proclus cites a passage from Ethiopia  written by Marcellus, which should be mentioned that in the past seven islands in the Atlantic Ocean were recognized goddess Persephone and three huge islands dedicated to Hades, Poseidon Amon respectively. Atlantis Island dedicated to Poseidon, was the largest, and had supremacy over all other .. Marcellus has not been identified so far.

Plato's account was the source and parodic imitation: the history of Chios Teopompus describes a land in the ocean called Meropis. This description included in the eighth book of Philippa, contains a dialogue between King Midas of Phrygia and Silene, the latter presents the islanders as having twice the size of ordinary people who live twice as long. They lived in huge cities, and should be sent to the army of ten million troops to conquer Hyperborea, but when they learned that they, inferior in their eyes, were the luckiest people on earth, have dropped their plans. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath said that they and other details of Silene's story is an exaggeration of the story of Atlantis, Plato's ideas to ridicule.

Zoticus, a filozon Neoplatonist III century AD wrote a poem based on Plato's story.

Historian Ammianus Marcellinus in the fourth century AD, wrote an opera based on Timagenes's lost, a historian of first century BC, the Druids of Gaul HP claim that some residents would have migrated from distant lands. This story has been interpreted as a description of the arrival of refugees from the sinking of Atlantis, the statement of Ammianus' Drasidae (Druids) say that part of the population is indigenous (native), but others have migrated from the islands and lands beyond the Rhine "(Res Gestae 15.9), was interpetată by others as indicating the arrival of these immigrants from the north and east, not the Atlantic Ocean, located to the west.

In the Middle Ages

In medieval accounts of Atlantis are almost complete, an exception being Kosmas Indicopleustos geographer of Alexandria, who believed that Atlantis is the land of ten dynasties that have ruled the earth before Noah's flood . Atlantis Neabordarea problem in the Middle Ages was explained as due to Aristotle's influence on scholars of the period, and especially the influence of the Catholic Church, which saw Atlantis as a heresy, because the Bible did not appear anything about it.

During the Renaissance

In 1582 Loys Le Roy writes in the preface to a translation of the dialogue Timaios that make Plato's account on account of his desire to show the age of the world and to glorify the country .

Novel of 1627's Francis Bacon, New Atlantis describes a utopian society on the west coast of America. A character in the novel is a description of Atlantis which resembles that of Plato, and a place in America (it is not clear whether it refers to the North or South America.

In 1675, the Swede Olaf Rudbeck of Sweden claimed that Atlantis is real, as its capital Upsala .

The Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended Isaac Newton's 1728 study of more mythological connections with Atlantis.

In the modern era

In modern times, theories about Atlantis have multiplied. In the last half of the nineteenth century, proposed a relationship between Aztec and Mayan civilizations and Atlantis.
Ignatius L. Donnelly, member of U.S. Congress, wrote a book about Atlantis.

In 1882 he published Atlantis: the antediluvian World (Atlantis: The world before the Flood) by Ignatius L. Donnelly, who has sparked interest in the issue of Atlantis. Donnelly sought to show that all great civilizations of antiquity were originally Neolithic civilization of Atlantis.

The evolution of science, particularly the idea of ​​continental drift, strongly reduced the likelihood of a continent in the past in the Atlantic. Other hypotheses have emerged, in which Atlantis was located in America, the Caribbean, Northern Europe, Africa or Asia

In the mid-'50s Charles Hapgood argues for the first time "crust displacement theory, theory itself prefaced and supported Albert Einstein at the time, showing that every year about 47,000 polar caps weight unevenly distributed about the axis of rotation Earth makes the whole lithosphere (situated on the core liquid) to reposition the new center of gravity, repositioning also spent the last 12,000 years ago. This last "displacement" should be removed Atlantis in the temperate zone, throwing it entirely within the southern polar spring. This theory is supported by several arguments, only one of which is Plato's description of Atlantis as an island of huge size, situated in the midst of ocean (the Atlantic called Plato's time), a condition which is subject only to the Antarctic continent, which - from the perspective of the world viewed from South Pole "- is indeed surrounded by a single ocean, although the prospect seems to be more traditional.


In ancient Egypt

The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead souls of the dead are said to go away towards the west, by country Amenti or Aaru.
 In Greco-Roman antiquity
 Remote islands located in the Atlantic appear to other ancient authors, under other names, is considered by some authors as one and the same island (islands) of Atlantis  Pausanias speaks of an archipelago located in the Atlantic, which he called Satyrida. In the Moralia, Plutarch mentions Ogigia island before May found that three large islands, and beyond the island continent where he was Saturnia. About Ogigia speaks Odyssey Homer, epic in which he describes the island feacilor Scher, which is similar in some respects to Atlantis. The songs of Orpheus is said Lictonia island, destroyed by Poseidon with a trident shot . Diodorus of Sicily and he describes a large island beyond the Columns of Heracles.         
In the Arab world
Arab Geographers and they talk about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean, which had in common with the legend of Atlantis.
In medieval Europe

In medieval times there were a number of legends about mysterious islands in the Atlantic and submerged lands, which, although not based on Plato's account, were considered by some critics as having the same historical basis. Thus, the island Avalon in the legend of King Arthur, the mythical island Antilia, the St. Brandan or Fortunate, Brazil, or the lands of Lyonesse, Maydos, Ys city were elements of medieval legends that have circulated at the time, some of which are considered real time. Island of St. Brandan was placed on some maps until the eighteenth century, and Green Island Basque British charts was maintained until 1843.

In America

In population-Vuh of the Mayans Codex says that their ancestors had come in the past from a country located on the east . Also, a tribe living in Venezuela in the middle of the equatorial forest in a village called Atlan, which preserves the memory of a catastrophe that would destroy their ancestral homeland, which was an island in the Atlantic Ocean . In the Toltec codex Tira râtriburi mentions several who came from the east and spread to the Pacific Ocean. Their homeland was a mountainous island, one Ditrău mountains surrounded by a wall and a channel, so reminiscent of Plato's description.

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