India , officially the Republic of India is a country in South Asia. India is the 7th in the hierarchy of countrird by area, in second place by number of  inhabitants and democractic state with most peoples. India has a coastline length of 7,000 km  and borders Pakistan to the west, Nepal , China and Bhutan  to the north-east and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the India Ocean, it is adjacent to the island nations of Sri Laka, Maldives and Indonesia.

Valley home of the Hindu civilization, the center of  important trade routes and vast
Empires, India has played a major role in human history. Brahmanism, Hinduism, Sikhism , Buddhism and Jainism originated in India , while Islam and Christianity enjoy a rich tradition here. Colonized as part of the British Empire in the nineteenth century India gained independence in 1947 as a unified nation after a sustained effort made ​​in this direction. Both population and flora and fauna, the geographical aspect and the climate system are among the most diverse in the world. India is also home of  Pepper.            

The name India  is derived from the word Indus , which in turn derives from the Persian   Induce from the sanskrt  Sindhu, or local historical name for the river river Ind ancient Greeks referred to the Indians Indian Indo (Ινδοί), the Indus people. The Indian constitution and the use of Indian languages ​​to use the word India is Bharat. Industan, which in Persian means "land induced" from historically refers to northern India but is also used as a synonym for the entire country.

Big problem in visiting India is that there is no rule on where to go first. Geography of the country meet the needs of cold and warm climate, spectacular desert and mountain landscape, lush vegetation and culture in every area, is rich and sophisticated stunning.

So, if you go in India, you can do anything you want. The country is too large to be known in a very nice trip, and ten. First visit could mean the idea is a week in the south, then north a week. To see the first pure and ancient Hindu culture of southern India, which is the basis of crops in northern India cocktaiului
India has always annoyed strangers. OamIncredible Indiaenii Alexander the Great have been amazed by elephants. William Shakespeare, who never visited India, alluded to its exotic rich merchant in A Midsummer Night's Dream. Mark Twain called India the land that every man wants to see her. India continues to fascinate with equal force today, the tradition and religion intertwined with the flourishing of global development.

India is the land of great contrasts, where history and tradition go hand in hand with this dynamic. When you first visited this country, your senses are assaulted, impressions are richer than you could imagine.

New Delhi is a city located in northern India, the Yamuna River and is the capital. New Delhi was built between 1912-1929 on a site near the city of Delhi. This place was chosen to replace the old capital of India, Calcutta. New Delhi capital of India was inaugurated in 1931.

The streets of New Delhi are symmetrically arranged, corresponding to plans drawn by the English architect Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens. Lutyens also designed the palace is located downtown and is residence to the President and parliament and other important government buildings. The architecture of these buildings is largely European, but are also found ingenious details of belonging to the Indian style.

Another Indian style building that combines the western United States embassy is designed by Edward Durell Stone. Raj Path, a great boulevard bordered by trees, lies to the east of the palace to a memorial arch built in 1921. The streets of the shopping center are arranged in a radial shape.

A number of institutions with high education and research, the National Museum are located near the city.

A place of prayer in the south of orsului New Delhi was the scene of the assassination of Mohandas Gandhi in 1948. Lahshminarayan Balmiki temples and are situated in the western sector of the city.

People in the Indian capital, New Delhi in 1992 was 294,149 inhabitants.

Other major cities in India have a lot of people are: Calcutta = Kalikuta (7,005,362), Delhi (3629842) = Allende Nagar Hyderabad (1789910), Bangalore (1648232), Kanpur (1.273016 ), Poona (1.123399), Nagpur (962 419), Lucknov (826 246), Agra (637 785), Varanasi Benares = (582 915), Jabalpur (533 751), Allahabad (513 997).

The official language of India is Hindi, but English continues to be used as the official language in state administration. The Constitution is recognized as the main language used in local government another 14 idioms (Tamil, Bengali, Marathi, Urdu, Gujarati, Assam )  


The continental climate of the region is due to the settlement on the coast and neighboring mountain ranges. Annual temperatures are between 40 and 4 degrees C. The city generally has a semiarid climate with large temperature variations between summer and winter. In July-August is monsoon season.


The city has many important monuments, 175 of which were considered national heritage sites. In the Old City are splendid architectural monuments, such as Jama Masjid (largest mosque Indian) and Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites (Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb) are located in Delhi. Other Monuments: India Gate, Jantar Mantar (astronomical observatory dating from. the eighteenth century), Purana Qila (fort of the century. XVI). Among the monuments of modern architecture remember Laxminarayan Temple, Akshardham and the Bahá'í Lotus Temple. Memorial houses, such as that of Mahatma Gandhi, or some government buildings, colonial architecture reminescenţe are other important sights.

National events

Very important holiday is Republic Day in Delhi (where there is a large military parade) Independence Day (August 15) and Gandhi Jayanti (Gandhi's birthday). Other celebrations include religious celebrations and cultural events, such as Qutub Festival, which brings together musicians and dancers from all over India, Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (spring festival).


Munghlai Punjabi cuisine and delicacies like kababs and biryanis offers very popular in much of Delhi. Due to the cosmopolitan population, cuisines from all parts of India suffered influences.


Mumbai  formerly known as Bombay ( /bɒmˈbeɪ/), is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fifth most populous city in the world, with a population of approximately 12.5 million. Along with the neighbouring urban areas, including the cities of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world. Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. As of 2009, Mumbai was named an Alpha world city. Mumbai is also the richest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West or Central Asia.

The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies. For centuries, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese and subsequently to the British East India Company. During the mid-18th century, Mumbai was reshaped by the British with large-scale civil engineering projects, and emerged as a significant trading town. Economic and educational development characterised the city during the 19th century. It became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the early 20th century. When India became independent in 1947, the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as capital. It was renamed Mumbai in 1995.

Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India, generating 5% of India's GDP, and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Trust & JNPT), and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. Mumbai is home to important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. It houses some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses India's Hindi (Bollywood) and Marathi film and television industry. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India and, in turn, make the city a potpourri of many communities and cultures.


The name Mumbai is an eponym, derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba - the name of the Koli goddess Mumbadevi - and Aai, "mother" in the language of Marathi.

The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. Ali Muhammad Khan, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi (1507) referred to the city as Manbai. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name Bombaim, in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India"). This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.
The temple of local Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, after whom the city of Mumbai derives its name

Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), and Boon Bay (1690). After the British gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was officially anglicised as Bombay.


Early history

Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba). Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai by archaeologist Todd in 1939 suggest that these islands were inhabited since the Stone Age. It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. Perhaps at the beginning of the Common era (2000 years ago), or even possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.

In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated in the mid-third century BCE, and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times. The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE.

Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Kshatrapas, Abhiras, Vakatakas, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, before being ruled by the Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260. Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are, Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 to 525), Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and Banganga Tank (12th century).

King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century, and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim). The Pathare Prabhus, one of the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev. The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347– 48, and controlled it till 1407. During this time, the islands were administered by the Muslim Governors of Gujarat, who were appointed by the Delhi Sultanate.

The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan. In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahamani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands, but was defeated.

European rule

The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century. Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the seven islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535. The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay.

Some of the oldest Catholic churches in the city such as the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534), St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579), St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580), and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632), date from the Portuguese era. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the British Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the British managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.

These islands were in turn leased to the British East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum by the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The islands were subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan, the Siddi admiral of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672,[58] Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on 20 February 1673, and Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673.

In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency. Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's establishments in India. Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90. The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739.

By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India. Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. With the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War. The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas without violence through the Treaty of Purandar (1776), and later through the Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.

From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as Hornby Vellard, was completed by 1784. In 1817, the British East India Company under Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in the Battle of Khadki. Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came under British suzerainty, and were incorporated in Bombay Presidency. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan witnessed the freedom of Bombay from all attacks by native powers.

By 1845, the seven islands were coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project. On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thane. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea. In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected. As the capital of the Bombay Presidency, it witnessed the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement in 1942 and The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.

Independent India

After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. On April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District and Bombay City to form Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.

The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. The States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status.

Following protests during the movement in which 105 people were killed by police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960. Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat. Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them. As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square), and a memorial was erected.

The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was set up on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region. In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population. Textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the massive 1982 Great Bombay Textile Strike, in which nearly 250,000 workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike. Mumbai's defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense redevelopment.

The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55–60% of India's containerized cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city. The geographical limits of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban, though they were administered by same Municipal Administration.

The past two decades have seen an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed. On 12 March 1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries. In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains.

In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to a couple of heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. Today, Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub. For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment. From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia's largest city and home of the world's most prolific film industry.


Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) under the administration of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The remaining area belongs to Defence, Mumbai Port Trust, Atomic Energy Commission and Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the BMC.

Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. It sits on Salsette Island, partially shared with the Thane district. Mumbai is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west. Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft); the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai-Kanheri ranges.[108] Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).

Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city's limits. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Three small rivers, the Dahisar River, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from Thane creek on the eastern to Madh Marve on the western front. The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.

Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras. Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity. The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.


Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July. The cold season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.

Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (135.9 in) for 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37.17 in) on 26 July 2005. The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 mm (84.51 in) for the Island City, and 2,457 mm (96.73 in) for the suburbs.

The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81.0 °F), and the average annual precipitation is 2167 mm (85.31 in). In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88.2 °F), while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (74.7 °F). In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) to 33.3 °C (91.9 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) to 26.2 °C (79.2 °F). The record high is 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) on 28 March 1982, and the record low is 7.4 °C (45.3 °F) on 27 January 1962.


Mumbai is India's largest city(by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP. It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and Indian Rupee 4,000 crore (US$888 million) in corporate taxes.

As of 2008, Mumbai's GDP is Indian Rupee 919,600 crore (US$204.15 billion), and its per-capita income in 2009 was Indian Rupee 128,000 (US$2,840), which is almost three times the national average. Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen and Toubro, State Bank of India, Life Insurance Corporation of India, Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance), and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai. Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have branches in this area, with the World Trade Centre being the most prominent one.

Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology. As of 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities. Mumbai is the 4th most expensive office market in the world. Mumbai was ranked among the fastest cities in India for business startup in 2009.

State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India. In Dharavi, in central Mumbai, there is an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.

Most of India's major television and satellite networks, as well as its major publishing houses, are headquartered in Mumbai. The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood, is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest in the world as well as centre of Marathi Film Industry. Along with the rest of India, Mumbai, its commercial capital, has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in 2000s.

Mumbai has been ranked 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008. In April 2008, Mumbai was ranked seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes magazine, and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth.

Civic administration

Mumbai, extending from Colaba in the south, to Mulund and Dahisar in the north, and Mankhurd in the east, is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis.[149] The Mayor is usually chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years.

The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.

The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.

The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones,each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers.

Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. Mumbai also has a special TADA (Terrorist and Disruptive Activities) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.


Mumbai has been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885. The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century.

The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay. The party headed a campaign to expel South Indian and North Indian migrants by force. The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay municipal corporation elections.

In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly elections. In 1999, the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) separated from the Congress, but later allied with the Congress, to form a joint venture known as the Democratic Front. Currently, other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city.

In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: Mumbai North, Mumbai North West, Mumbai North East, Mumbai North Central, Mumbai South Central, and Mumbai South. A Member of Parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies. In the 2009 national elections, out of the six parliamentary constituencies, five were won by the Congress, and one by the NCP. In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.

A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies. In the 2009 state assembly elections, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 17 were won by the Congress, 6 by the MNS, 5 by the BJP, 4 by the Shiv Sena, 3 by the NCP and 1 by SP. Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the BMC.

The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a Mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial. In the 2007 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 111 seats, holding power in the BMC, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 85 seats. The tenure of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.


Public transport

Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black and yellow metered taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008. Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai.

Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas, and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport. Mumbai had about 1.53 million vehicles in 2008, 56,459 black and yellow taxis, and 102,224 auto rickshaws, as of 2005.


Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4 and National Highway 8 of India's National Highways system. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India, while the Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway, Western Freeway and Eastern Freeway is under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs. The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Borivali.

Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008. Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane.The BEST operates a total of 4,013 buses with CCTV Camera installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes.[190] Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant Compressed Natural Gas powered buses. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) buses provide intercity transport and connect Mumbai with other major cities of Maharashtra and India. Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) also operate its Volvo buses in Mumbai, from Navi Mumbai to Bandra, Dindoshi and Borivali.

Buses are generally favored for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.

The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. Mumbai BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai, with buses running on seven routes as of March 2009. Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion. Mumbai's transport system has been categorized as one of the most congested in the world.
  • Mumbai Skywalks
Because of congestion on roads due to hawkers and parked vehicles, MMRDA has initiated the Mumbai Skywalks project to provide quick and safe pedestrian dispersal from highly congested areas such as Mumbai Suburban Railway stations to heavily targeted destinations.


Mumbai is the headquarters of two of Indian Railways' zones: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate. The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, consists of three separate rail networks: Central, Western, and Harbour Line, running the length of the city, in the north-south direction.

Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007, which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily carrying capacity. Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours. The Mumbai rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route kilometers. 191 rakes(ratin-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilized to run a total of 2226 train services.

  •     Mumbai Metro
Mumbai Metro is an underground and elevated rapid transit system currently under construction.
  •     Mumbai Monorail
The Mumbai Monorail, currently under construction, will eventually run from Jacob Circle to Wadala.

Mumbai is well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Dadar Station, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central Station, Bandra Terminus, Andheri and Borivali.


The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. In 2007, it catered to over 25 million passengers. An upgrade plan initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually by 2010, is expected to be completed on time.

The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.

The Juhu Aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport.


Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai. Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India. It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerized cargo.

Mumbai is the headquarters of the Western Naval Command, and also an important base for the Indian Navy.

Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.

Utility services

Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai. Many localities have been named after them. The BMC supplies potable water to the city from six lakes, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway. The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is Asia's largest water filtration plant. India's first underground water tunnel is being built in Mumbai.

About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai. Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste, is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and Deonar in the east. Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli and Bandra, and disposed off by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.

Electricity is distributed by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd) in the suburbs. Consumption of electricity is growing faster than production capacity. The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.

Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city. MTNL and Airtel also provide broadband internet service.


According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai was 12,478,447, According to extrapolations carried out by the World Gazetteer in 2010, Mumbai has a population of 13,830,884 and the Mumbai Metropolitan Area has a population of 21,347,412. The population density is estimated to be about 20,482. persons per square kilometre. As Per 2011 census, Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the BMC, has a literacy rate of 89.7 %, higher than the national average of 71.7%.

The sex ratio was 838 (females per 1,000 males) in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. The low sex ratio is due to a large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.

Residents of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar, Mumbaiite or Bombayite. Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any other metropolitan city of India. Marathi, the official language of Maharashtra state, of which Mumbai is the capital, is widely spoken and understood in the city. Sixteen major languages of India are also spoken in Mumbai, most common being Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati and English. English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya - a blend of Marathi, Hindi, Indian English and some invented words - is spoken on the streets.

Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. With available space at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district. Dharavi, Asia's second largest slum is located in central Mumbai and houses 800,000 people. With a literacy rate of 69%, the slums in Mumbai are the most literate in India.

The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.

The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (67.39%), Muslims (18.56%), Buddhists (5.22%), Jains (3.99%), Christians (4.2%), Sikhs (0.58%), with Parsis and Jews making up the rest of the population. The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (42%), Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts of India. The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Khojas, and Konkani Muslims. Native Christians include East Indians (ethnic group) Catholics who were converted by the Portuguese, during the 16th century. The city also has a small native Bene Israeli Jewish community, who migrated from the Persian Gulf or Yemen, probably 1600 years ago. Mumbai is also home to the largest population of Parsi Zoroastrians in the world, with about 80,000 Parsis in Mumbai. Parsis migrated to India from Pars (Persia/Iran) following the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century AD.


Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions and cuisines coexisting in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period.

Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema - Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies - and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century. Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The world's largest IMAX dome theatre is in the Wadala neighbourhood. The Mumbai International Film Festival and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai. Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.

Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.

Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga. Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters.

The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style. Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features. There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India. Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009.

The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. Mumbai has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Elephanta Caves. Popular tourist attractions in the city are Nariman Point, Girgaum Chowpatti, Juhu Beach, and Marine Drive. Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach, and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.

Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theater, and films. A week long annual fair known as Bandra Fair, starting on the following Sunday after 8 September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate the Nativity of Mary, mother of Jesus, on 8 September.

The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai. The Elephanta Festival - celebrated every February on the Elephanta Islands - is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country. Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960 , and Gudi Padwa which is the New Year's day for Marathi people.


Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city & the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana and Sakaal. Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha & Chitralekha. Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include the Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times, DNA, and Indian Express. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages. Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822. Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832

Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.

The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels), news channels such as Star Majha, Lokmat IBN, Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony Zee TV and STAR Plus. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai.Zing a popular bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai.Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs. Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV and Tata Sky.

There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.[288] Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as WorldSpace, Sirius and XM. The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.

Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year. The name Bollywood is a portmanteau of Bombay and Hollywood. The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation. Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets. City also hosts Marathi film industry which has seen increased popularity in recent years.


Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated either with the Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE), The all-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction. The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.

Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll for two years in Junior College, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine. Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.

The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT) which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, and SNDT Women's University are the other autonomous universities in Mumbai. Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research and several other management schools. Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai. The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution.

Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.


Cricket is the most popular sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as gully cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is also home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and Indian Premier League (IPL). The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 39 titles, the most by any team. The city is also represented by the Mumbai Indians in the Indian Premier League.

The city has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. The first cricket test match in India was played in Mumbai at Bombay Gymkhana. The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the final of the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the final of an ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in 2006. Eminent cricketers from Mumbai include Sachin Tendulkar and Sunil Gavaskar.

Football (soccer) is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely. In the I-League (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground), Mumbai is represented by three teams, Mumbai FC, Mahindra United and Air-India. Field hockey has declined in popularity, due to the rise of cricket. Mumbai is home to the Maratha Warriors, the only team from Maharashtra competing in the Premier Hockey League.

Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf club in Mumbai. Interest in Formula One racing has been rising in recent years, and in 2008, the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in Mumbai. The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan land. If approved, the track will be clubbed with a theme park and will spread over 400 to 500 acres. In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship. In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established in a bid to bring the sports discipline to the Indian public. Mumbai has also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.


Regarded as the "queen of Indian flowers", the Lotus is the national flower of India and is considered sacred by Hindus and Buddhists.

Lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, with three hotspots located within its area, India displays significant biodiversity. As one of the seventeen megadiverse countries, it is home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of all reptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian, 11.7% of all fish, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species. Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.

India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and northeastern India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; the teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain. Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. According to latest report, less than 12% of India's landmass is covered by dense forests.

Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, from which the Indian plate separated a long time ago. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. Consequently, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians. Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. These include the Asiatic Lion, the Bengal Tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.

In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; in addition, the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980. Along with more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries, India hosts thirteen biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.

Society and traditions

Traditional Indian society is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. The Indian caste system describes the social stratification and social restrictions in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis or castes. Several influential social reform movements, such as the Bramho Shômaj, the Arya Samāja and the Ramakrishna Mission, have played a pivotal role in the emancipation of Dalits (or "untouchables") and other lower-caste communities in India. However, the majority of Dalits continue to live in segregation and are often persecuted and discriminated against.

Traditional Indian family values are highly respected, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm, although nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas. An overwhelming majority of Indians have their marriages arranged by their parents and other respected family members, with the consent of the bride and groom. Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low. Child marriage is still a common practice, more so in rural India, with about half of women in India marrying before the legal age of 18.

Many Indian festivals are religious in origin, although several are celebrated irrespective of caste and creed. Some popular festivals are Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Onam, Vijayadashami, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, Buddha Jayanti, Moharram and Vaisakhi. India has three national holidays which are observed in all states and union territories - Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states. Religious practices are an integral part of everyday life and are a very public affair.

Traditional Indian dress varies across the regions in its colours and styles and depends on various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men; in addition, stitched clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta-pyjama and European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular.

Music, dance, theatre and cinema

Indian music covers a wide range of traditions and regional styles. Classical music largely encompasses the two genres – North Indian Hindustani, South Indian Carnatic traditions and their various offshoots in the form of regional folk music. Regionalised forms of popular music include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter.

Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of West Bengal, Jharkhand , sambalpuri of Orissa , the ghoomar of Rajasthan and the Lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Orissa and the sattriya of Assam.

Theatre in India often incorporates music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue. Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances, and news of social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of state of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, the tamasha of Maharashtra, the burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, the terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.

The Indian film industry is the largest in the world. Bollywood, based in Mumbai, makes commercial Hindi films and is the most prolific film industry in the world. Established traditions also exist in Assamese, Bengali, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Tamil, and Telugu language cinemas.


Indian cuisine is characterised by a wide variety of regional styles and sophisticated use of herbs and spices. The staple foods in the region are rice (especially in the south and the east), wheat (predominantly in the north) and lentils. Spices, such as black pepper which are now consumed world wide, are originally native to the Indian subcontinent. Chili pepper, which was introduced by the Portuguese, is also widely used in Indian cuisine.

Preparing before the wedding

Rokka In this ceremony, the boy and girl commit to a marriage, and will not consider any marriage proposals. Ardaas is followed by exchange of gifts.

Mangni This is the ceremony when the family goes to family girls boys with gifts, jewelry and other goods to confirm commitment. Usually, even an exchange of rings takes place.Dholki may be a day or several days, usually high profile in a banquet hall, the ladies sing traditional songs.Mehndi ceremony takes place either the bride or the groom. Bride and other ladies Mendham (henna designs) made, hands and feet (many painted ladies are only a handful, but the bride is done on both hands and feet). For Wedding Mendham future husband is sent by his mother.

Shagun Shagun ceremony marking or Shagan is starting work, during which two families exchange gifts comply commitment.Ubtan This ritual requires the bride to stay at home, in her old clothes for a few days before her wedding. Before ubtan bath (a paste of powdered turmeric and mustard oil) applied on her body by the relatives and friends. Both ghardoli ubtan Ghar and ceremonies are also performed for the groom at their home.Saga is engaged and the ceremony begins when the bride reaches the groom future matli home with a package that symbolizes good luck. Matli is usually a container made of metal and contains sweets and gifts for the groom and his family. This package acceptance by the bride's family symbolizes the union of their daughter's future bride. Then there is a ceremony where five women from each family blesses the couple.Garba is held the night before the wedding and involves more dancing. This ritual gives two families the opportunity to meet and have fun together before the wedding. The most important event is the RAAS, a dance involving sticks couples and giving. The dance involves hitting your partner with his sticks while watching ritumul music.Pithi This is a ceremony in which both bride and groom are covered with yellow powder, which turns into a paste. The ceremony is used to cleanse the bride and groom before the wedding. They say that pasta is light and soft skin, which then develops a healthy glow.Mandapam Mahurat This is a typical ceremony performed before major events where families pray and ask god Ganesh blessing.Griha Shanti This ritual is led by Pandit, a Hindu priest and the wedding date and time of confrontation is chosen by prospective grooms horoscopes. Prayers are made by members of two families and their relatives and the result is that the next couple wanted to have a happy life.

Wedding Ceremonies

Impeuna Baraat procession with the groom's familyand his friends to the ceremony location. Many grooms choose to arrive at the ceremony on a horse or a carriage. The ritual of bar it gathers all the participants in the festival dances. Gujarati Indians traditionally do not marry someone of the same town, so that the ceremony signifies that the bride groom comes into town.Arrival of groom or Ponkyu Ponkyu is the official start of the wedding. The bridegroom's mother is received at the entrance. This will make a ritual called Aarti and we will pull the nose playful incercad groom. This tradition reminds the groom that he came to the door to ask the bride's marriage.Some Gujarati Wedding Jaime and it will bring will exchange garlands with her husband. The groom is raised higher than the bride during this exchange. In modern times it is done to show the groom's friends can not take the bride groom from friendsand family.Madhuparka groom is welcomed by his mother in Mandapam, a decorated canopy under which the bride and groom stand during the ceremony. Groom's feet are washed and he is offered honey and milk. Saalis Meanwhile, his sister tries to steal the groom's shoes. Traditionally the groom had to leave the wedding with the same shoes that came. If her shoes are stolen, he must give his sister-money to get it back.Kanya Agamana the bride is taken by her uncle Mandapam. When it reaches the right arch, there is a antarpaat, a curtain that separates the groom. A Hindu priest begins the ceremony and the curtain is down time for the two grooms to exchange garlands. The ceremony takes place before a sacred fire and is ruled by a Hindu priest.Kanya Daan bride is given by her parents and the bride's hand is placed on the groom's hand. Parents do not eat before the wedding the bride to be pure for the occasion.Milap hasta scarf dress bride groom is related to ritual that symbolizes the union of two souls. Priest singing prayers to invoke blessings of Goddess Laxmi and Parvati god for the bride. And blesses the bride and her relatives throw rice or rose petals.Varma In this ceremony a cord is tied around their necks to protect them from evil couple. These cords are wrapped by the elders of both families.Charcoal Pheras couple around the sacred fire four times, and this signifies the four basic human goals Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Priest singing prayers and reciting the groom. As an element of fun bride and groom to sit on chairs run. They say that those who arrive first will be the head of the family.Saptapadi bride groom help achieve seven betel nuts with your finger right leg while both recite the seven vows. With each step, the groom sings prayers in support of his wife calling.Bhave Saubhagyavati seven married women of the bride go by a couple and whisper blessings into the bride's right ear.Chero Pakaryo When a mother passes the bride groom, he will get to jump as a way to request gifts from the bride's family.Ashirwaad ends with the ritual ceremony in which bride and groom ask the blessings of elders

Post-wedding rituals  

Vida / Vida Doli marks the departure of the bride's parents' house. As a custom, the bride throws rice phulian or gel on your head. The ritual shows how the bride takes the revedre from her parents. Brother accompanies the bride to the groom's house while her relatives throw coins in their wake.
Aarti Pani vaarna mother groom traditionally carried a jug of water. She makes seven attempts to drink water from the jug to her son. The groom must first succeed in drinking water. The bride must, with his right foot, hitting the pan with rice is placed in the side door before entering the house.
New Dalnic insurateii Pheri parents visit the bride the day after the wedding.

Indian weddings

Indian weddings are very bright, full of charm and also well-established rituals. A wedding may take up to a few good days, during which the couple will be visited more than 400 to 1,000 guests, which often are unknown to the two newlyweds. Most marriages are arranged, only lately, and especially in urban areas instead of making their marriages that are based on love between two people. These two families in particular will be related, newlyweds are much less involved in the whole process to be together. Wedding propriuzisa is a grand event, full of pomp. The food and drinks will be chosen at your discretion for many guests. Depending on the region, the food will be vegetarian or not. Another charming feature of Indian weddings is the gameHide appointed during the wedding shoes. Before the start of wedding ceremonies, groom your shoes, and someone close to the bride, usually a sister of hers, will hide shoes in question. In these shoes the boy will be obliged to negotiate and pay an amount required by those concerned. All this negotiation process is extremely funny and the delight of those present at the wedding.A common feature of weddings in India, irrespective of caste or religion is the fact that both parents face and the boy's parents will be involved in organizing the entire ceremony so everything is in place, and guests to leave satisfied.In traditional Indian wedding, flowers have always played an important role. A tradition that has withstood time, sending it down from generation to generation, is the groom's brother was pressed flower petals over the heads of the couple during the ceremony, when the vows, but at the end of the ceremony.The bride is painted on her hands and feet and filled the most valuablefamily jewels, gold, decorated with precious stones and dress, most times, is very colorful in shades of red, brown, gold or green. The perfume used is called Itar Groom has a special flavor and helps it to stay fresh throughout the day. For a traditional look and ethnic bride wears a nose-earring-Nath to catch the left nostril and left ear is linked with a gold chain. Groom's costume, one favorite young married couple, Jodhpur is called, is an elegant model that will give them an air of elegant bride accessorized with jewelry you can matched those worn by the bride. The costume may be of silk, cotton or blends, now it's budget. As accessory groom wears a knife or a sword in belt, sculpate and decorated by hand, are a symbol of royalty. Receptions are held outdoors, with sets of flowers, red roses or orchids, the bride being behind the scene at one end and the dining area at the other end. All is full of opulence and extravagance, with sophisticated food, exotic fruits and traditional drinks. The wedding is maintained by good music and dance.Indian weddings are important not only because of the unification of two souls, and celebrate the union of two families. Many of the habits of an Indian wedding will regasii in religions Hindu, Muslim and even Sikhs. A wedding will be preceded by a series of ceremonies and traditions, following the presidential couple on their wedding day to be subjected to other domestic rituals.Bariksha - is when the girl's parents showed their official intentions for a groom, with the latter agreeing with the family choice. A refusal in the days ahead is unlikely.Tilak - assumed the girl's parents home in the boy travel to formalize the relationship. A big celebration will be held, and those involved will celebrate with great fanfare. A small number of relatives of the girl will be attending this celebration, somewhere not more than 10 people. It will not happen too often that the boy's parents make a marriage proposal.Byaha Haath - the purification of the mind, souls and bodies of the two married. It is a ceremony that will happen during the day and will pregatii the two for the night ahead. Uptan is a paste made of rose water and other spices that will be enforced by the seven unmarried girls face, hands and feet of bride and groom. After this ceremony the two will not be allowed to leave the house to conduct a wedding propriuzisa.


Navaratri or Navarathri is a Hindu festival of worship and dance. The word Navaratri literally means nine nights in Sanskrit, meaning the new vessel. During these nine nights and ten days, nine forms of Shakti / Devi is worshiped. In the spring and early autumn are two very important junctions of climatic and solar influence. These two periods are taken as sacred opportunities for the Divine Mother worship. Festival dates are determined based on the lunar calendar. Being the world's oldest religion, Hinduism has many belief systems. In Hinduism, adherents believe in one deity omnipresent, but can worship her / him in any of the numerous events that are prevalent all over India. Navaratri is the celebration of Goddess Durga, a manifestation of God in the form of Shakti. Dasahara, which means ten days of Dussehra is in popular parlance. Festival of Navaratri or nine-day festival is ten days of the festival with the addition of the last day, which is the culmination Vijayadashami. Navaratri is celebrated four times a year. They are Vasanta Navaratri, Ashadha Navaratri, Sharad Navaratri, and Poushya / Hungarian Navaratri. Of these, Sharad Navaratri Vasanta Navaratri of the month and the Kala Puratashi Vasanta are very important.*** Vasanta Navaratri - Basanta Navrathri also is known as Vasant Navratras, the nine-day festival dedicated to new forms of Shakti (Mother Goddess) in spring season (March-April). It is also known as Chaitra Navratri. The nine-day festival is also known as Navratri Raam.*** Gupta Navaratri - Navratri Gupta also mentioned Ashadha or Gayatri or Shakambhari Navratri, nine days is dedicated to new forms of Shakti (Mother Goddess) in Ashadha months (June-July).*** Sharan Navaratri - This is the most important day of Navratris, and is simply called Maha Navratri (Navratri Great) is celebrated in Ashvina. It is also known as Sharad Navaratri, as his celebrated during Sharad (beginning of winter, September-October).*** Poushya Navaratri - Poushya Navratri, nine days is dedicated to new forms of Shakti (Mother Goddess) in Pousha months (December-January). Poushya Navaratri is observed during the Shukla Paksha Pousha.*** Hungarian Navaratri - Hungarian Navratri, Navratri Gupta also mentioned, is a new day dedicated to new forms of Shakti (Mother Goddess), the Hungarian months (January-February). Navaratri is observed during the Hungarian Hungarian Shukla Paksha.Navratri is celebrated in a large number of Indian communities. Mother Goddess is said to occur in 9 forms, and each is revered for one day.* Durga* BhadrakaliJagadamba * or Amba, the Mother of the universe* Annapurna, who gives the beans in plenty* Sarvamangala, who give joy* Bhairavi* Chandika or Chand* Lalita* Bhavani* MookambikaNavratri is divided into sets of three days to adore three different aspects of the supreme goddess.*** The first three days - the Goddess is separated as a spiritual force called Durga also known to destroy all our impurities.*** 2nd set of three days - is adored as a giver of spiritual wealth, Lakshmi, who is regarded as having power because she is the goddess of wealth wealth.*** The last three days - are dedicated to the goddess of wisdom, Saraswati. To have any success in life. Faithful seek blessings of all three aspects of divine femininity, hence nine nights of worship


Onam is the biggest festival in the Indian state of Kerala. Malayalee fall during the month of straps (August-September) and marks the homecoming of legendary King Mahabali. The festival lasts for ten days and is related to several aspects of Kerala culture and tradition. Complicated wreaths, food, Snake Boat races and dance all play Kaikottikali
a role in the festival. For this festival, people wear new clothes: men a shirt and mundu, a skirt-like bottom and a gold top, a nariathu. Girls wore a skirt called Pavada, and blouse. Onam is the harvest festival in Kerala. According to legend, Kerala witnessed its golden age during the reign of King Mahabali. Everybody was happy and prosperous state and the king was appreciated by his subjects. Besides all his virtues, Mahabali had one shortcoming. He was selfish. It is the festival where they show people how their egelui are happy and content. The most impressive part of Onam celebration is called Onasadya grand feast, prepared by Thiruonam. It is a table loaded with 11 to 13 essential dishes. Onasadya is served on banana leaves and people sit on a mat laid on the floor to have lunch. Another enchanting feature of Onam is Vallamkali takes place on the river Pampa.

Raksha bandana - Holiday brothers (full moon in August)

AKSH Bandhan (the bond of protection in Hindi, Punjabi, Oriya, Gujurati, and many other Indian languages​​) is a Hindu festival, which celebrates the relationship between brothers and sisters. It is celebrated on the full moon of the month Shraavana (Shravan Poornima). The festival is marked by about Rakhi or sacred thread that connects him to his wrist sister or brother, brother in return offers a gift and promise to take care of his sister. Traditionally, their brothers, or reciprocal eat sweets. It is not necessary for people to be blood brothers Rakhi bracelet is given to any man so become brothers. Ste Indian history full of women asking men Rakhi bracelet, which offers such protection from them.
Rani Karnavati story of Mughal Emperor Humayun and the chitta is the most significant evidence in history. During the medieval era, around the 15th century, there were many wars between the Rajputs, Mughals and Sultans. Rakhi at that time meant a binding spirit and protect the sisters was the most important. When queen Rani Karnavati widow of King chitta and realized that she could not in any way defend the invasion of the Sultan of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, she sent a Rakhi Emperor Humayun. The king was so touched by the gesture that sent the bones to save her.
Rakhi may also be linked and other special occasions to show solidarity and kinship (not necessarily only among brothers and sisters), as happened during the Indian independence.Raksha bandana - Holiday brothers (full moon in August)

August 15 - Independence Day (Proclamation of Independence)

India Independence Day is celebrated on August 15 to commemorate its independence from British rule of his birth as a sovereign nation on that day dinn 1947. The main event takes place in New Delhi, the Prime Minister hoists the national flag gives the Red Fort and says a nationally televised speech from its ramparts. In his speech, he outlines his government's achievements during the year, raise important issues and give a call for further development. The Prime Minister also pays tribute to those who fought for freedom. On 3 June 1947, Viscount Lord Mountbatten of Burma, the last British Governor General of India, said Indian division of the British Empire in India and Pakistan in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Independence Act of 1947.
At midnight, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and liberty. A moment comes which comes but rarely in history, when we come from old to new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds today, the end of a period.
In cities in the country is flying the national flag by the politicians, in their territories. In various private organizations lifting the flag is performed by a senior officer of this organization. Schools and colleges across the country organize a flag hoisting ceremony and various cultural events. Families and friends gather together for lunch or dinner, or a trip to celebrate Independence Day.

January 26 - Republic Day (Adoption of Indian Constitution)

India celebrates Republic Day on January 26. It is one of the three national holidays of India. Although India achieved independence on 15 August 1947, it has not yet had a permanent constitution, instead, its laws were based on colonzare. On 29 August 1947, the drafting committee was appointed to draft a permanent constitution, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as the chairman. A draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and presented to the Assembly on 4 November 1947. The assembly was published, 166 days spread over a period of two years, 11 months and 18 days before adoption of the Constitution. Two days later, the Indian Constitution became law on all Indian lands. Constitution of India came into force only on January 26, 1950. Following elections on 21 January 1950, Rajendra Prasad was elected president of India. Most of the constitutional provisions in India are either directly reached in order to promote social revolution or attempt to promote this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its achievement. January 26, 1950 is one of the most important days in Indian history as it was on this day the Constitution of India came into force and India became a truly sovereign country. In this day India became a totally republican unit. He realized the dream of Mahatma Gandhi, who fought and sacrificed his life for independenaa country. So, 26 January was decreed a national holiday and has been recognized and celebrated as Republic Day of India. Today is Republic Day celebrated with enthusiasm throughout the country and especially in the capital New Delhi.

Henna / mehndi (hands Depiction of brides)

Mehndi temporary henna as decoration is the application of the skin. became fashionable in the West in the late '90s. Henna is typically applied during special occasions such as weddings and festivals. It is usually drawn on the hands and feet. Henna was originally used as a form of decoration mainly for brides. Henna paste is usually applied to the skin using a plastic cone or a brush, but sometimes used a small metal bottle top. After the henna is applied to cover the painted area to get better skin. These bandages are kept on at night and painted the morning are given below. These paintings have a durability of between two weeks and several months depending on the type of toothpaste used and have a brown color - red. Intricate mehndi patterns are usually applied to brides before wedding ceremonies. This painting with henna ceremony is usually celebrated by the bride's family. This ritual is done on the eve of the marriage ceremony or a few days before that. Participate in this ritual but are invited and groom dancing girls dressed in bright colors such as pink and yellow. At the end of painting hands / feet in the middle of dancing girls bride dressed in traditional costume of purple hue which

Vermilion or Sindoor

Vermilion, which is also called red Sindoor powder is then applied to the trail head. It is used only by married women which is used to know the world is their marital status. Significantly this is the same ingredient powder essential Hindu rituals (Puja). It is a symbol of fertility and regeneration power of married women. This powder is worn on the head as long as she is married. If the husband dies Alpicat no longer red dust. The same is true for the divorce. 

Bindi (red point in the forehead)

Bindi is leading the red dot worn by women in India. Because this format with red vermilion powder, placed in the middle of the forehead is considered a symbol of the Hindu religion of the 3rd eye, the magic, not only women but also men Hindu Bindi gate. In this context Bindi is a religious symbol, but he has a social function. Traditionally Bindi is a sort of ring of Indian women married to is different from the unmarried. In time, though, Bindi has evolved so as to form and spread. Today he is reduced to a red dot made ​​with vermilion powder, but can also be represented by a jeweler or a gem.
Bindi has lost more than symbolism becoming a fashion accessory than a matter of tradition. Although both Western vision nose ring and point on the forehead seem bizarre, in India they are actually means beautification.  

Nath (nose ring)

Nose ring is the Indian view, a way to emphasize feminine beauty. The custom was introduced in the Hindu area in the 16th century, he is originally from the Middle East. Initially representing attribute nose ring married women, today it is worn and unmarried couples, since age 16. This being the age at which young is only good to marry. The ring can be worn in the right nostril and in the left side, but preferred being left nostril is considered that this is because female genitalia piercing and consequently would promote fertility. The ring can be worn and passed through the cartilage between the nostrils or hanging skin located at the root of the nose. It is not necessary to have the nose ring worn as a ring. It can be both a simple circle of metal, and a hoop-laden gems and pearls, or simply got a small diamond earring screw within the country. When you circle the ring in his nose is loaded with heavy decorations that make it difficult to sustain, there are those chains that connect fine earlobe nose ring or hair, reducing the weight of the nostril jewelry

Introduction to Indian classical dance

He is a symbol of communication, highlighting the most intimate feelings. It describes the cultural aspects of a civilizatii.In India, it is believed that dancing is a form of yoga that can go dancing at the Almighty. India has a rich tradition in terms clasic.Acesta dance is a misnomer, actually, and refers to Naty. Indian Classical Dance aims to increase experience and release the man's righteousness, which manifest the glory of God. He was born and raised in the temple until he reached the royal palace, after several centuries. Indian dances are based on mythological stories. Shiva is called the king of dance. He accomplished his destruction of the world by performing Tandava, which as a cosmic dance, is the symbolic destruction of the illusory world of Maya or ignorance (illusion). For centuries, Indian culture has accepted as a dancing Shiva dancing is the dance of life, myth, symbolism, mystical answers and philosophical explanations.
     Nataraja symbolizes the cosmic cycles of creation and destruction, birth and death. So Shiva is dancing a dance of the universe. It is parallel with the cycle of creation and destruction is not only reflected in his turn, the seasons, but also the essence of inorganic matter.
      Shiva Nataraja dui involves many things. The right hand is the drum of creation, symbolizing a new awakening his left hand to fire you, which is being destroyed right and left hand raised in blessing, pointing to his left foot, which has crushed demon Muyalaka.

Indian Dance

Universe offers many exotic Indian classical dance forms, each originating in a certain region. The eight main styles are Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Odyssey, Kuchipudi, Mohiniattam, Manipur, Sattrya and Kathak. In addition, they meet many other popular dances-religious origins. Among them is the most famous Bhangra, present in all the clubs in the world because Indian Punjabi MC's. Indian Dance is a great art, it requires a perfect coordination between body postures, facial expressions, movements and voice avalanche. Yes! For most of the times, is Indian dancer and actress and singer, claiming that the story through dance gestures of the hands and suggestive glances.
    Indian dance is always composed of two distinct categories: Nritya and Nritta. The first category refers to the story behind the song after that dance, while Nritta corresponding pure dance movements. The variety of gesture resulting from the harmonization of the two concepts is impressive. Thus there are 13 distinct movements of the head, eye 37, 7 of the chin, neck 9, 5 of the breasts, 32 foot (16 of them in the air), 24 for each hand and 13 for both hands combined. Here dancing exploits all human body movements to represent themselves as the only way to communicate with the absolute soul, making some simple viewers privileged witnesses of those special moments where you feel as amazing is visible and sublime at the same time. The study of a special arts as Indian dance usually begins before age 5 years for the first time when tiny penetrate the gates of specialized schools from across India. Once arriving here, maestrele dancers handles all aspects of the learning process and harmonize the positions correct gestures. In elite schools, it is necessary to study thoroughly for a period of seven years for the young graduate to become a professional dancer in the true sense.
    Clothed in almost infinite variety of colorful Indian salt, a dancer soar saraband undulating movements, where every gesture is melting into each other, creating the effect of a living carousel of color, energy and human splendor.
    Dances of India seem at first glance a series of moves that are sublime, but whose effect on weight loss is very low silhouette or shape. This at first sight, that a serious approach to the phenomenon, there are at least two interesting discoveries. The first is that any kind does not meet Indian dancer with excess weight. Second, conjures the world of Indian cuisine where the bad foods, which not only gain but also ill, are practically nonexistent. Cumulative effect of dance in the early hours of study leads to the result of an amphora-shaped silhouette, very feminine, delicate and sensual as well.
    The secret dream figure, fatal envy for men and women, is given by exhausting exercise or weight loss Cardio theories one minute in the Western market is saturated profile. It is produced by wave motion effects, ubiquitous in Indian traditional choreography.Although a dance session does not seem as demanding as one of tae-bo or body-modeling, the mechanism by which excess weight lost is arguably as good, even with some extra points. Movements at low or medium intensity, and real estate positions, all common in technical baggage of Indian dance, act very effectively by requiring cardiopulmonary muscles without overloading the device. Stations combined with frequent low-level changes of the body while dancing going mainly to emphasize muscle toning and buttocks, abdominals and muscles of the thighs. Actually very important, calf muscles are overworked, thus avoiding the development of massive legs, unsightly and undesirable for any woman. Other advantages are surprise on the spine and joints healthy. The same sets of movements working for suppleness and dorsal lumbar muscles, while having a significant effect on the intervertebral cartilage. Basically, we can say without any doubt that Indian dance protects the spinal injuries caused by sudden movements while ensuring its suppleness, even in old age. Another problem area for modern society, being in a continuous sedentary is abdominal belt increased aggregation plus pounds in this area. It was found that sets of movements similar to those of Belly Dance, common in Indian dance, act effectively to remedy this unsightly problem for any woman. On the other hand, acts as a massage beneficele positive moves on the viscera and internal organs. Everything to find both health and beauty ideal. With a slight Indian flavor.

Five days after Basant Panchami, dark months of January new moon- Basant Panchami is a festival that is celebrated by people from all communities - Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians. Literal meaning of "Basant" is spring. According to Hindu calendar, it falls on the fifth day after the Black Moon and is also called "Hungarian months.
Basant festival is the biggest celebration dinn North India. Brightly colored in yellow gold fields were ripe crops of mustard. People cook yellow rice and wore yellow clothes. The yellow is considered auspicious and is important in this day. There is a feeling of wealth and thus, joy and atmosphere.
It is, in essence, a festival day in the spring season after the cold winter months. On this auspicious day, children are taught words, educational institutions and offer prayers Brahminsiloe Goddesses (Hindu priests). On this day ascend to heaven and even colorful kites are different games
and race with them.    
Muslims call this festivalJashan'm Baharaan. In Pakistan also, this festival is celebrated in a similar way.India is certainly a festival for every occasion!

 Makar Sankranti - Half Light year (solstice of Capricorn)  

In accordance with the lunar calendar when the sun moves from the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn at Uttarayana Dakshinayana in mid-January, commemorates the early harvest season and the cessation of the northeast monsoon in southern Europe and India. The movement of land from one zodiac sign to another is called Sankranti and when the Sun moves into Capricorn is known as Makar in Hindi, on this occasion is called Makar Sankranti utotul in the Indian context. It is one of the few Indian Hindu festivals which are celebrated at a fixed date ie January 14 each year.
     Makar Sankranti, except the harvest festival is also considered auspicious beginning of a phase in Indian culture. It is said that at the "holy of transition. " This phase marks the end of a bad omen that, according to Hindu calendar begins around mid-December. It is believed that any auspicious and sacred ritual may be sanctified in any Hindu family, as of this day. From a scientific standpoint, this day marks the beginning of warmer days and longer nights compared. In other words, Sankranti marks the end of winter season and the beginning of a new crop or spring season.
     All over the country, Makar Sankranti is celebrated with great fanfare. However, it is celebrated with different names and rituals in different parts of the country. In the countries of northern and western India, the festival is celebrated as Sankranti day with particular zeal. The importance of this day was meant in ancient stories such as, well, the Mahabharata. So, apart from an important socio-geographic, this day, has a historical and religious significance.

Holi - Color Festival   

Holi Festival of Colors in India or is a holiday that takes place in spring and is celebrated in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, but also in many other countries. In each of these countries, this festival that heralds spring, has another name.
    This festival is of Hindu origin and requires each person who participates as dressing in colorful clothes and who desires to paint on the face. Celebration takes about 16 days each and every day wearing a specific name.
    Locals hold this celebration in order to remove the demons, evil spirits and all evil.
    Participants can paint their face with colored powder, but can stain and water in the area, considering so they will be safe from disease if they are washed with colored water.
    Nowadays, the celebration of Holi is an excuse for Indians to forget their inhibitions and caste differences, to celebrate spring and enjoy themselves. Young people spend the day flirting in the streets, and adults extend his hand in token of peace, everyone is in a frenzy throwing brightly colored powder called <gulal> and pouring water. Preamble festival takes place in the first full moon night, starting on March 10 this year, the whole celebration lasts 2-3 days. Tonight, the streets will be lit all the fireworks will light up dark corners. They have the effect to ward off evil spirits and bad energy, but also to symbolize the destruction of the mythological character Holika negative, then the festival was named. The next morning, the streets will be full of people running, screaming, are happier and are sprinkled with water and colors. It is even accepted marijuana to create an atmosphere devoid of inhibitions. 2010, Holi will be held on March 1.The colors are the most joyful part of Holi celebrations. They add vitality to the festival, making it the most vibrant and exciting of all. However, the colors take on meaning:Green - VitalityBlue-calm, serenityYellow - piety, humilityRed - puritySuddenly, around lunchtime, the madness is over. Everyone turns to rivers or water-filled tubs, where they will relax. Evening and then let the peace of this country.Happy Holi!

Dipawali or Diwali or Deepavali is the biggest and most important holiday in India, celebrated in October or November of each year, marking the last harvest before winter. The festival has drawn its name from the words <rand, sir> (downstream) and clay lamps (Deep) those outdoor lamps that Indians placed them in their homes as symbolizing the inner light that protects the family from spiritual forces of darkness. Hindu festival is as same important as Christmas is for Christians.
    India was an agricultural society and people always sought the blessing of the goddess of wealth Lakshmi, during which, for Diwali, closing the accounting books and began to pray for success and a good start for the new financial year. Today, this practice is extended in business, are celebrated not only in India, the second day after Diwali marks the first day of the new financial year.
    Indians celebrate Diwali with family parties, glittering earthen lamps, fireworks, strings of electric lights, bonfires, flowers, share sweets to celebrate the goddess Lakshmi. Some believe that on this day Lakshmi wanders the Earth looking for houses that will be welcome. People open their doors, windows and light lamps to invite Lakshmi into the house.
    Over the centuries, Diwali has become a national festival, held by most Indians regardless of faith: Hindus jainisti, Buddhists and Sikhs.
    * In northern India celebrates the return of King Rama of Ayodhya after defeating Ravana on the bright rows of clay lamps.
    * In Southern India celebrates the day Krishna defeated the demon Narakasura.
    * In the West Indian festival marks the day that Vishnu, the Savior (one of the main gods of the Hindu Trinity) sent a demon king Bali to lead the underground world.
    In all interpretations of the festival there is a common ring: marks the victory of good over evil!
    Non-Hindu communities have other reasons to celebrate Diwali festival:
    * In Jainism marks the nirvana of Mahavira or spiritual awakening October 15, 527 BC
    * In Sikhism marks the day that Guru Hargobind Ji, the sixth Sikh Guru was released from prison.
    Five days of Diwali
    On the first day of Diwali, housewives consider it auspicious to spring clean their homes to buy gold or kitchen utensils.
    On the second day, people decorate their houses with earthen lamps or diyas and create different designs called Rangoli on the floor with colored powders or sand.
    This is the main day of the festival, families gather together to celebrate Lakshmi Puja, make a special prayer to the goddess Lakshmi, followed by abundant food and fireworks.
    Diwali marks the first day of the new year, friends and relatives come to visit with gifts and best wishes to speak for the new season.
    On the last day of Diwali, the brothers visit their married sisters, wishes prosperity, love and generous meals.

How to wear a jump (Salt Bengali drape)

This type of jump in May we can now only old people in villages of India. It makes it very easy even from a sheet that is more easily jump ten material in general. It's simple to do and gave it contained only two folds of the top two times in the body.Start at the hip on the right, making sure that it is perfectly straight and not very long so you will not interfere with walking. Wrap around the waist to compensate for differences between the hips and waist can make two small pleats, then the top goes around your waist put underneath, skip the rest of your body falls perpendicularly Take the left side of the jump and put it on your left shoulder. The upper part is now midway between waist and shoulder and pull you jump into your face until there long enough to return to the middle. At the end of the jump site in one of the corners to make a knot.
     After making the node give it back and then pull the knot in front and then had to give him back again all over the left shoulder

Hear a jump (Jump Nivi style)

Nivi style is the most popular type of jump sin India. Nivi's Sari is common in the western part of India. Its length is bent at the waist in front 7-9. Pallu (the most printed on the jump) is the longest part of the jump site which is on your left shoulder and is sleek hanging down his back.
The first step is to make the jump on you and your waist surrounding him from right to left, it should be almost glued to the shirt (top of sariu's) foot care being taken to be equal parts each other and have the length you desire. Inconjutar After the jump a few times around the waist a little squeeze at the waist so as not to fall but at the same time leave enough room for your legs could move. To have enough room to make some pleats in the front legs when they jump put on your site might like to make no more than seven folds, which are made ​​in the same place on each other and the rest of the jump climb it elegantly on the shoulder letting it fall back slightly. If folds are made ​​in front longer than the rest of the country's front lift slightly at the waist until your jump reach the same size and gently shoved underneath the waist. To be sure they will not drop you can use a clip or a safety pin underneath so that definitely gives you the needle should be quite tidy enough to cover all your jump folds and at the same tipm but you might like to not be very visible on the outside.
Part of the jump that comes over your shoulder and it can be caught from breteluta jump's blouse with a pin and can be left to fall down over your hand or it can be done and ply but not more than five and they are caught with a needle and not to let go.
Poare be left on the back side dropped freely or can be pulled down once in the back in front like a shawl

From prehistory to the classical  

An intensive archaeological activity. Scientists still assessing the history of ancient India. Theories abound on the subcontinent uncharted archaeological remains and therefore there
recent claim that the first humans arrived on the west coast of Africa and then went down in Kerala.Discovered only in 1957, the most spectacular group of stone shelters, around a thousand, is situated along the coast of Bhimbetka, near Bhopal. Half of these caves are adorned with paintings, old paintings is estimated between 10,000 and 40,000 years. Vestiges of life on the subcontinent deateaza 400,000 years ago. In India primitive sharp stones were found, dating from the Himalayan glaciatiei (Pleistocean).
In Pushkar, in Rajasthan, stone hammers were found in the Upper Paleolithic (30,000), which was used quartz, agate and carnelian, carved as arrowheads, a beauty and precision far beyond the practical demands.
Since these early times, Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic, primitive dwellings provide evidence about different ways of living, fishing, hunting, gathering, agriculture simple household and comergiale exchanges. Paintings from this period depict activitazi foreign visitors and dancing, hunting and panda. Indus Valley rice and wheat are grown, is domesticesct sheep and goats and in the years around 5000 BC, but humpback obijnuitele cattle were the most familiar pets. Olala pottery appeared around 3500 BC, leading to mass production, as mud brick building barns, proving the existence of large Communications Commission organized. The main archaeological sites and includes Banavali Mitathal (Haryana) and Surkotada (Kachchh). It also owns the Ganges plain and Alor evidence of similar developments, but independent.
The isolation of the Indus

Archaeologists reveal early chapters gradually dn Indian history. In the
Himalaya Mountains from India and Pakistan
Signs abound Paleolithic and Neolithic human activity, such as the scenel
  Sale sculpted cliffs beside India
For example, in Ladakh, a mysterious shroud Delange Dha engraved on a rock, likely
Indo-Aryan seized by Dard, who still lives here today. When you travel through this region, look into the rock, especially along the river banks

The Indus Valley Civilization

 In this vast network cuprnsul cultivation
earth, with gradual grubbing rich alluvial plains of rivers for fruit appeared
Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan urban increase, how is it called, whose peak was around 2500 years BC Its most famous cities, Harappa and Moenjodaro, are in Pakistan, but India sites include fascinating and spectacular harbor city-fortress Loth Dholavira, both in Gurajat, as Kalibangan in Rajasthan. Together with other cities of this sophisticated civilizations, these urban centers
were more advanced in comp [show with the previous period. Usually had a clear plan for the city, concentrated on top of a tall hill, probably a religious and political core. There were areas for artisans workshops, storage of and indifferent to workers' homes. There were large granary, sures of water supply and irrigation systems, it is evidence of international merchant.

The unified social and political organization, surprising, continued until today in Pakistan and most of the north, however, two mysteries remained Indiei.Au about this civilization. Obsedatele his stone seals have not yet been deciphered and is also looking for explanations for the decline in or around 1700 BC It was about an invasion, a hunger, soil depletion through overuse or something? Whatever the response, a large part of the culture heritage passed in subsequent Indian company                                     

Age Western 

1500-1000 BC: Between 1500 and 1300 BC,
Aryan nomadic tribes from the Iranian plateau, have
began to migrate, crossing mountains, north India.
These pastors has found simple communities, villages
placed very different sophisticated Harappan cities.
Each had a head-raja-warrior, who received a tribute
For the role of protector of villagers. Livestock
was the main form of wealth and, therefore, a principal
reason for war.
   Confirm Rajai State was his-Brahmans, priests,
those great hymns and verses composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the early transmission
orally, but written later, "Rig Veda" is the most popular

This and other texts such as, "The Upanishads", the epic
"Mahabharata" and scrierilerelogioase Puranas, history tells us, life and thought
In Vedic times, the abstract doctrine of Karma has its roots in Vedic philosophy. Vedic rituals are centered on the worship of the forces of nature personified
and abstract divinities. They placed emphasis on ritual sacrifice, the singing of hymns and meditate on the important pereotului, became the basis of what is known as Hinduism.
   As became territorial and tribal identity was symbolized royal power of
Coronation and sacrifice, became a tribute to the old tax, and commerce and agriculture flourished.  

From the classical to the penetration of Islam 650-1206

Northern India after the Gupta dynasty would see increased regional states, while
the south of India would rise to a new peak. This artistic creation will flourish, as can be seen in sculptures of Elephanta and Ajanta viguroasele as temples and monuments of stone creations, such as those in Thanjavur, Chidambaram and
Gangakondacholapuram. These temples have become a center for all arts, especially sculpture, bronze casting, dance, music and picture. Patronized by the rulers, they have played a vital role in supporting the royal powers.
    In these centuries were established leadership of the autonomous states, which today is very strong. Indian Guides merchants specialize in fabrics, precious stones and spices, and expanded trade with the Jews, Arabs and Chinese. Sanskrit was the language and literature authorities cults. When Buddhism and Jainism have declined, Hinduism has absorbed local religions, gaining regional characteristics.
  In the north, the Ganges Valley and the main town, Kanauj, were all under the rule of dynasties. Pratihara, Palas and, FUNAI, Rashtrakuta, first dynasty of the Deccan who arrived in this area. To the east, the Kings have stability Somavamshi capital Bhubaneshwar, whose great temples have lasted until today.

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