The Ţarcu Mountains are a mountain range in the southwestern Romania, at the western edge of the Southern Carpathians. They are located between the Bistra Valley (to the south), Timiş River (to the east), Godeanu Mountains (to the northwest) and Large River Valley (to the west), the last one being a natural barrier between them and the Retezat Mountains. The Ţarcu Mountains have been declared Natura 2000 protected area since 2007 because they shelter valuable biodiversity and spectacular nature. Together with the Retezat Mountains, the Godeanu Mountains and Cernei Mountains they form the last european Intact Forest Landscape, if we do not take boreal forests (from Scandinavia and Russia) into account.
In the mountains weak metamorphosed crystalline schists predominate Tarcu, pierced by massive granite and old formations, Paleozoic and Mesozoic, constituting the base region. During the Cretaceous tectonic movements extensive environmental education continued and was completed in Cretaceous, this base has been rode a rigid fabric cover made of highly metamorphosed crystalline schists in depth. During long periods of erosion that followed, the cloth was fragmented and largely removed. Small patches of it remained, as in the north-west of the massif, at altitudes of modest and VF. Tarcu, hence extends to the southeast, forming Godeanu. Erosion not only unveiled the Danube field formations under canvas, but left obvious traces in the relief itself. In the mountains there is a great waste Tarcu a broad smooth surface, suspended at 2000-2200m, Borascu surface. A second area of leveling River plain meets the height of about 1400m in the High Meadow peaks, river Pleasa and Şes.
The position and altitude mountains dam Tarcu have a role to the movement of air masses that penetrate both the north and north-west and south and southeast. The average annual temperature of air is 8 ° C to hem, 5.5 ° C to Cuntu and 0 ° C to peak. Tarcu, while the weather station in Caransebes, which is Timis in color, the 200m, it has a value of 10.5 ° C. In January, the coldest month, mean air temperature has ranged between 3 and 4 ° C on lap 8 and 9 ° C over 2000m. Station Cuntu these values are 4.8 ° C and the peak station. Tarcu 9 ° C. Warmest month, July, 16-18 ° C temperature known to foot, and below 10 ° C over 2000m. The average annual temperature reaches Mount Small 7-8 ° C. During the year, June is the rainy in June-September and April-August precipitation is greater than 110mm. The dry months are October and November. Number of days with frost is 150 foot and 200 on the highest peaks. Much of the precipitation falls as snow. First snow may fall even in late August, but very late in December. Basically, over 1500m, it can snow all year round. Duration of snow is between 75-100 days and 200 days in the foot and slopes of the northern Alpine region. Peak station. Tarcu thickness usually exceeds 100 cm, and glacial can reach 2-3m. At peak. Tarcu prevailing winds north and south, and spread in wind speed is between 6-10m / s and 2-5m / s and at Cuntu prevailing winds are the northeast and southwest, and the speed is between 2-5 m / s and 6-10m / s.
The majority of rivers in the mountains belong Tarcu Timis basin. Only exception is the Great River, which belongs Stei. The main rivers are the north-east-south-west (the river cold, long and white) or southwest-northeast (Great SES). Ses River has its springs on the slope south-west of VF. Godeanu and the limit between them and the mountains Tarcu. Its main tributaries are: Scheiu, Mattaniah Baicu, Carciova and Zeicu. Great River is formed from the union of the river water with those of Lapusnicul Ses Great. Receives tributaries from mountain streams Tarcu Tomeasa, Netiş and Brook Stone, Bistra and Great Valley, with origin in the glacial peaks Custurii boilers, Bloju, Petreanu and as Black Hill. Cold River springs from a bucket of ice located on the eastern peak. Tarcu, has a length of about 34km. Long River, 29 km long and its tributary creek White, 24 km, they are on the western slope of the peak obârşiile. Tarcu. Further north are streams Armenis, Ilova, Bolvasnita and Sebes. Bistra has its obârşiile in VF. Custurii and Black Hill, springing from Bistra lake, at 1900m altitude. Incoming streams on its way Lupu Bucova, Marga and the Bistra Marului. North-eastern mountains is drained by the stream and tributary Zeicani his Zlatina, which carry their waters to Haţeg depression. The boilers glacial valleys and several lakes. Thus, ice bucket Oboroacele, Tarcu Iezerul is at 1950m, cubărit between detritus. Gloss White Rocks and Taul Taul, is the pot of the same name on the southern side of mountain Baicu at 1785m. Corciova temporary lake, situated at about 1540m in the valley of the same name, has an area of 0.45 ha and 10-20cm depths. Under VF. Custurii in Căldarea Netişului are three lakes at over 1900m, the highest is 1940m, has an area of 1.1 ha and a depth of 3.5 m. Bistra obârşiile ice bucket from Ox, guarded by VF. Wedding and Black Hill, home to three lakes, the largest has an area of 1.1 ha, a depth of 7m and is at 1960m altitude.
At heights above 1600-1800m, smoothing surfaces and the highest peaks, is engaged in a meadow and scrub vegetation of alpine and subalpine, which meet red fescue (Festuca rubra), wind grass (Nardus stricta) and grass lambs (Festuca ovina). At over 1900m. lawns are made of horns. To limit forest develops clusters of jneapăn (Pinus mugo), juniper (Juniperus sibirica), smirdar (Rhododendron Kotschy), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-IDEA). There is the presence of aurochs (Pinus cembra), a protected tree in Custura beads.
In the Alpine and subalpine note the presence of chamois (Rupicapra Rupicapra), and juniper trees, often meet the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus urogallus). The most numerous species are related to forest fauna. Here live the bear (Ursus arctos), wolf (Canis lupus), deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris fuscoatea), stone marten (Martes foina) and mouse collared (Apodenus tauricus). Fast waters and glacial lakes are stocked with trout (Salmo trutta fario) and rainbow trout (Salmo Gairdner irideus), and the grayling (Thymallus thymallus).