Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena of the Indies or Cartagena of the West Indies, in English) (Spanish or hypercorrected English as if "Cartageña"), is a large Caribbean beach resort city on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region and capital of Bolívar Department. The city had a population of 892,545 as of the 2005 census, making it the fifth-largest city in
Colombia and giving the Cartagena urban area the status of fifth-largest urban area in . Colombia Cartagena is a centre of economic activity in the Caribbean, as well a popular tourist destination.
Activity and development of the
Cartagena region is dated back to 4000 B.C. around by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The Spanish colonial city was founded on June 1, 1533 and named after Cartagena Bay . Cartagena, Spain served a key role in the development of the region during the Spanish eras; it was a center of political and economic activity due to the presence of royalty and wealthy viceroys. In 1984, Cartagena 's colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Cartagena
Pre-Columbian era: 7000 BC - 1500 AD
The Puerto Hormiga Culture, found in the Caribbean coast region, particularly in the area from the Sinú River Delta to the
Cartagena de Indias Bay, appears to be the first documented human community in what is now . Archaeologists estimate that around 7000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Colombia . In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Sucre , dating from around 4000 BC. The primary reason for the proliferation of primitive societies in this area is thought to have been the relative mildness of climate and the abundance of wildlife, which allowed the hunting inhabitants a comfortable life. In today's villages of Maria La Baja, Sincerín, El Viso, and Mahates and Rotinet, excavations have uncovered the remains of maloka-type buildings, directly related to the early Puerto Hormiga settlements. Americas
Archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC. The rise of a much more developed culture, the Monsú, who lived at the end of the
Dique Canal near today's Cartagena neighborhoods Pasacaballos and Ciénaga Honda at the northernmost part of , has been hypothesized. The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga culture's use of the art of pottery and also to have developed a mixed economy of agriculture and basic manufacture. The Monsú people's diet was based mostly on shellfish and fresh and salt-water fish. Barú Island
The development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and
Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the area. Until the Spanish colonization, many cultures derived from the Karib, Cartagena Bay and Arawak language families lived along the Colombian Caribbean coast. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Malibu was home to the Tayrona people, whose language was closely related to the Chibcha language family. Santa Marta
Around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Karib language family, more precisely the Mocanae sub-family, including:
In the downtown island: Kalamarí Tribe
In the Tierrabomba island: Carex Tribe
In the Barú island, then peninsula: Bahaire Tribe
In the eastern coast of the exterior bay: Cospique Tribe
In the suburban area of Turbaco: Yurbaco Tribe
Some subsidiary tribes of the Kalamari lived in today's neighborhood of Pie de la Popa, and other subsidiaries from the Cospique lived in the Membrillal and Pasacaballos areas. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence. These tribes, though physically and administratively separated, shared a common architecture, such as hut structures consisting of circular rooms with tall roofs, which were surrounded by defensive wooden palisades.
First sightings: 1500-1533
After the failed effort to found Antigua del Darién in 1506 by Alonso de Ojeda and the subsequent unsuccessful founding of San Sebastian de Urabá in 1517 by Diego de Nicuesa, the southern
Caribbean coast became unattractive to colonizers. They preferred the better known Hispaniola and . Cuba
Though the Casa de Contratación gave permission to Rodrigo de Bastidas (1460–1527) to again conduct an expedition as adelantado to this area, Bastidas explored the coast and discovered the Magdalena River Delta in his first journey from Guajira to the south in 1527, a trip that ended in the
, the location of the failed first settlements. De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Urabá Gulf Santo Domingo to Urabá and the isthmus, and that encouraged Bastidas to investigate. Panama
Colonial era: 1533-1717
Initially, the city had fewer than 2000 inhabitants and only one church. The dramatically increasing fame and wealth of the prosperous city turned it into an attractive plunder site for pirates and corsairs – French privateers licensed by their king. 30 years after its founding, the city was pillaged by the French nobleman Jean-François Roberval. The city set about strengthening its defences and surrounding itself with walled compounds and castles. Martin Cote, a Basque from Biscay, attacked years later. A few months after the disaster of the invasion of Cote, a fire destroyed the city and forced the creation of a firefighting squad, the first in the
Many pirates planned to attack
, which became more and more interesting to them. In 1568, Sir John Hawkins of Cartagena tried to trick Gov. Martín de las Alas to go against Spanish law and open a foreign fair in the city to sell goods, planning to ravage the port afterwards. The governor declined, and Hawkins besieged the city, but failed to reduce it. England
In 1586, Sir Francis Drake, also of
, and nephew of Hawkins, came with a strong fleet and quickly took the city. The governor, Pedro Fernández de Busto, fled with the Archbishop to the neighboring town of England , and from there negotiated the costly ransom for the city: 107,000 Spanish Eight Reales of the time, or around 200 million in today's US dollars. Drake had destroyed one-quarter of the city, the developing Palace of the Township, and the recently finished cathedral. Turbaco
After this disaster,
poured millions every year into the city for its protection, beginning with Gov. Francisco de Murga's planning of the walls and forts; this practice was called Situado. The magnitude of this subsidy is shown by comparison: between 1751 and 1810, the city received the sum of 20,912,677 Spanish reales, the equivalent of some 2 trillion dollars today. The city recovered quickly from the attack and occupation by Drake and kept growing, and continued to attract attention from its opponents. Spain
The Raid on
in 1697 by Sir Bernard Desjean, Baron de Pointis and Jean Baptiste Ducasse was an all-out invasion that was politically motivated. Absent a male successor to the Spanish Habsburg throne, King Louis XIV wanted his grandson Felipe V to assert the right of succession, and the taking of Cartagena Cartagena de could help significantly. The political purpose behind the invasion was somewhat undermined by Ducasse, the governor of Saint-Domingue – today's Haiti – who brought his soldiers with a plan to steal, but ended with pirates and thieves destroying the city. Entry to the city was not easy because of the recently finished first stage of walls and forts, which slowed the invasion and made it costly. While Desjean only asked for 250,000 Spanish reales in ransom, Ducasse stayed a few months and dishonored the baron's promise to respect the churches and holy places. He left the inhabitants with nothing. Indias
During the 17th century, the Spanish Crown paid for the services of prominent European military engineers to construct fortresses. Today these are
's most significant identitifiable features. Engineering works took well over 208 years and ended with some eleven kilometres of walls surrounding the city, including the Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, named in honor of Cartagena 's King Philip IV. It was built during the governorship of Pedro Zapata de Mendoza, Marquis of Barajas and was constructed to repel land attacks. It is equipped with sentry boxes, has buildings for food and weapons storage, and contains underground tunnels connecting the fortifications. Spain
When the defenses were finished in 1756, the city was considered impregnable. Legend has it that Charles III of
Spain, while reviewing in Madrid the Spanish defense expenditures for Havana and Cartagena de , looked through his spyglass and remarked, "This is outrageous! For this price those castles should be seen from here!" Indias
On 5 February 1610, the Catholic Monarchs established the
Inquisition Holy Office Court in Cartagena de by a royal decree issued by King Philip II. With Indias Lima and Peru, it was one of the three seats of the Inquisition in the . The Americas , finished in 1770, preserves its original features of colonial times. When Inquisition Palace Cartagena declared its complete independence from on 11 November 1811, the inquisitors were urged to leave the city. The Inquisition operated again after the Reconquest in 1815, but it disappeared entirely when Spain surrendered six years later to the troops led by Simón Bolívar. Spain
Viceregal era: 1717-1810
Although the 18th century began very badly for the city, soon things began to improve. The pro-trade economic policies of the new dynasty in
Madrid bolstered the economics of Cartagena de Indias, and the establishment of the Viceroyalty of the New Granada in 1717 placed the city in the position of being the greatest beneficiary of the colony.
The reconstruction after the Raid on Cartagena (1697) was initially slow, but with the end of the War of the Spanish Succession around 1711 and the competent administration of Don Juan Díaz de Torrezar Pimienta, the walls were rebuilt, the forts reorganized and restored, and the public services and buildings reopened. By 1710, the city was fully recovered. At the same time, the slow but steady reforms of the restricted trade policies in the Spanish Empire encouraged the establishment of new trade houses and private projects. During the reign of Philip V of
Spain the city had many new public works projects either begun or completed, among them the new fort of , the Hospital of the Obra Pía and the full paving of all the streets and the opening of new roads. San Fernando
The city began with only 200 people in 1533 and during the 16th century showed incredible growth. A major factor was the gold in the tombs of the Sinú Culture.
After those tombs were completely plundered, the inhabitants began to scatter to the countryside and to establish themselves as farmers, and the population of the city decreased.
Though the silver age of the city was to come, trade began to boom and that boom continued to increase in the 17th century. The city reached its growth peak in 1698 before the arrival of the Baron de Pointis.
The census made by the mayor's office in 1712 reflects damage brought on the city by Jean Baptiste Ducasse and his brigands: a major portion of the population of the city had emigrated.
The 18th century brought the Bourbon dynasty and its pro-trade policies, and these benefited the city, causing it to prosper again. During this period, the city passed the psychological barrier of 18.000 inhabitants, which was at the time the population cap of the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
Among the censuses of the 18th century was the special Census of 1778, imposed by the governor of the time, D. Juan de Torrezar Diaz Pimienta - later Viceroy of New Granada - by order of the Marquis of Ensenada, Minister of Finance - so that he would be provided numbers for his Catastro tax project, which imposed a universal property tax he believed would contribute to the economy while at the same time increasing royal revenues dramatically.
Though the census was made in the most important cities of the Spanish Empire, enemies of
Ensenada in the court turned King Charles III, who was busy with ongoing war with , against the tax plan. The Census of 1778, besides having significance for economic history, is interesting because each house had to be described in detail and its occupants enumerated, making the census an important tool used even today by restoration architects in Britain Cartagena de 's city centre. The original of the census is preserved in the Indias Museum of History of the city while a copy rests in the Archivo de Indias in . Seville
It was the biggest city of the Viceroyalty until 1811, when the Peninsular War, which became Wars of Independence and Piñeres's Revolts, marked the beginning of a dramatic decline in all aspects for what had become the virtual capital of
New Granada. In 1815 the city was almost destroyed. No census information exists for that time, only accounts of how the city became a ghost town. Only around 500 impoverished freed slaves dwelt the city, whose palaces and public buildings became ruins, many with collapsed walls.
Recuperation, thought slow, did begin, but then stopped as a result of the general economic and political instability of the country at the time. In addition, isolationist economic policy on the part of the Andean elites doomed the areas with export potential to poverty.
Several famines and cholera outbreaks in the mid-19th century decimated the city, and it was in danger of disappearing.
After the 1880s the city began to recover from crisis and vigorous progress continued, though somewhat slowly, after the 1929 crash. Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Chinese and other immigrant communities developed in this period of time.
Between 1930 and 1970 the city showed great population growth at rates higher than the national average and higher than that of Bogotá, which boomed mainly because of internal displacement and the hope of work opportunities as centralization increased. By 1970, the population spurt was over, but population growth has been dramatic since the 1980s with a mixture of privatization of the port infrastructure, decentralization of tourism, and, sadly, the fact that proportional to its population Cartagena is the city that has received the most displaced people from the countryside with the escalation of civil war in the 1990s in the Andean regions as refugees looked for safety in the Caribbean capital.
Today the city shows a continuing tendency for population growth that began in the mid-80s. Birth rate and relatively normal death rates feed the ongoing economic expansion.
2011 1,230,443 Projected
2021 2,029,212 Projected
2033 2,849,202 Projected
To know more about the city's government history see:
List of Mayors of Cartagena de
List of Governors of the
Province of Cartagena
In this area is the
, located in the neighborhood of Crespo, only ten minutes' drive from downtown or the old part of the city and fifteen minutes away from the modern area. Zona Norte, the area located immediately north of the airport, is widely recognized as the district with the greatest prospective long-term urban development. It is the setting for the Hotel Las Americas, the urban development office of Rafael Núñez International Airport Barcelona de , and several educational institutions. Indias
The Downtown area of
has varied architecture, mainly a colonial style, but republican and Italian style buildings, such as the Cathedral's bell tower, can be seen. Cartagena
The official entrance to downtown Puerta del Reloj (Clock Gate), which comes out onto Plaza de los Coches (Square of the Carriages). A few steps farther is the Plaza de la Aduana (
Customs Square), next to the mayor's office. Nearby is San Pedro Claver Square and the church also named for San Pedro, as well as the . Museum of Modern Art
Nearby is the Plaza de Bolívar (Bolívar's Square) and the Palace of the Inquisition. Plaza de Bolivar (formerly known as Plaza de Inquisicion) is essentially a small park with a statue of Simón Bolívar in the center. This plaza is surrounded by some of the city's most elegant, colonial buildings, which have lovely balconies. Shaded outdoor cafes line the street. The Office of Historical Archives devoted to
's history is not far away. Next to the archives is the Cartagena , the office building of the Governor of the Department of Bolivar. Across from the palace is the Cathedral of Cartagena, which dates back to the 16th century. Government Palace
Another religious building of significance is the restored
in front of Plaza Santo Domingo ( Santo Domingo Church Santo Domingo Square). The square is home to the sculpture Mujer Reclinada ("Reclining Woman"), a gift from the renowned Colombian artist Fernando Botero.
Somewhat removed is the Augustinian Fathers Convent and the
. This university is a center of higher education opened to the public in the late 19th century. The Claustro de Santa Teresa (Saint Theresa Cloister), which has been remodeled and has become a hotel is operated by Charleston Hotels. It has its own square, protected by the San Francisco Bastion. University of Cartagena
A 20-minute walk from downtown is the Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas, located in el Pie de la Popa (another neighborhood), the greatest fortress ever built by the Spaniards in their colonies. The original fort was constructed between 1639 and 1657 on top of San Lazaro Hill. In 1762 extensive expansion was undertaken, and the result is the current bastion. Numerous attempts to storm the fort were mounted, but it was never penetrated. An extensive system of tunnels is connected underground to distribute provisions and facilitate evacuation. The tunnels were all constructed in such a way as to make it possible to hear footsteps of an approaching enemy. Some of the tunnels are open for viewing today.
is found Las Bóvedas (The Vaults), a construction attached to the walls of the Santa Catalina Fortress. From the top of this construction the Old City Caribbean Sea is visible.
This is one of the most representative neighborhoods in
. African people brought as slaves used to live in this neighborhood, the most prominent place of which is Parque Centenario ( Cartagena ), built in 1911 to commemorate a century of independence. Inside are found some interesting monuments, including one dedicated to the military. Parque Centenario also serves as a local police station and a mid-afternoon pulpit for aspiring evangelists. Over the years the park has acquired, through various means, a sloth, two gila monsters and a few monkeys. Centenary Park 's Convention Center, Third Order Church and San Francisco Cloister are all located in the area. This area is also home to many popular clubs like La Carbonera and Mister Babilla. They decorate the night life and enhance the locals and tourists weekends. The Cartagena has the same architectural styles as the area surrounded by The Walls. Old City
Bocagrande (Big Mouth) is a much-sought-after area with many hotels, shops, restaurants, nightclubs and art galleries. It is located between
Cartagena Bay to the east and the Caribbean Sea to the west, to include El Laguito (The Little Lake) and Castillogrande ( ), two renowned neighborhoods. Its particular appeal is in the beaches and nightlife around Avenida San Martín ( Big Castle Saint Martin Avenue), the backbone of the area.
The beaches of Bocagrande, lying along the northern shore, are muddy. There are breakwaters about every 200 yards, and the azure of the
Caribbean is lacking as the beach is very nearly at sea level and there is a lack of proper waste disposal in the city. A boat ride of about seven minutes takes visitors far enough out to sea to see the desired Caribbean color.
On the bay side of the
is a spectacular seawalk. In the centre of the bay is a statue of the Virgin Mary. Contestants of the Miss Colombia Pageant go there to be seen during festival. peninsula of Boca Grande
Originally constructed for foreign oil workers, Bocagrande consists mostly the land acquired through land reclamation. Bocagrande is now considered the city's most popular area for tourists.
Tourist sights and attractions
Islas del Rosario
Steps of La Popa mount
Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas
The Walled city of
Palace of the Inquisition
Playa Blanca, Barú (located in the
) island of Barú
As the commercial and touristic hub of the country the city has many transportation facilities, particularly in the seaport, air, and fluvial areas.
The city is linked to the northern part of the Caribbean Region through roads 90 and 90A, more commonly called
Central Caribbean Road. This Road passes through Barranquilla, Santa Marta and Riohacha ending in Paraguachón, Venezuela and continues with Venezuelan numeration all the way to . Caracas
To the southeast the city has more entrances:
Road 25: Going through Turbaco and Arjona, and through the Montes de María when a fork divides it continuing to
Sincelejo as National 25 and finally ending in Medellín, and to the east to as number 80. Valledupar
Road 25 A: Going also to
, but avoiding the mountains, finally connects with 25 in the forementioned city. Sincelejo
, is the busiest airport in the caribbean region and the fourth in passenger traffic in the country. The code of the airport is CTG, having flights to almost all domestic airports and many connections to Rafael Núñez International Airport in Bogotá. Excessive operational costs and easier connections and better prices had been shifting the gross international connection passengers to the nearer Eldorado International Airport Tocumen International Airport in Panama and Queen Beatrix International Airport in Aruba while also more companies prefer to serve the Colombian market from Cartagena de , due to better geographical and atmospherical conditions. Indias
Because of this growing general air traffic shift fIt is thought may be finished by 2020, the project favored by many in the region the interior to these coastal airports, studies had been made to build a bigger new airport in the area of Barbacoas Bay in the southern city limits. This airport, if approved, could be seen as a challenge to
and it is plausible to think on some people pressurizing for a standstill. Bogotá Airport
The city used to have a railroad station near today's "La Matuna" neighborhood, but in the late 50s there was a general trend toward dismantling the railroad system and replacing it with paved roads.
As the busiest container port in the country, and third in grain transportation, the city is well connected with the ports of the
Caribbean main, and the rest of the world. The city is served with three open ports, and more than 40 private ports.
The open ports of the City are:
Sociedad Portuaria de Cartagena de
Indias (Port Society of Cartagena de ). Specialized in container management, the first of his class in the country, 3rd. busiest in the caribbean sea, and 99th ranked port in the world. Indias
Muelles El Bosque (El Bosque Docks) Specialized in grain storage, expanding to the container market.
Terminal de Contenedores de Cartagena de
Indias (Container Terminal of Cartagena de ) Container management. Indias
Its important to note, that the first have acquired the assets of the last to develop a new port in the external bay that intends to duplicate the container capacity of the port in general by 2011 and triplicate it in 2015.
Of the private ports of the city we can mention:
The port of the
Cartagena de Indias Oil Refinery (REFICAR ) S.A.
SABMiller brewery port.
Dow Chemical raw materials embarkment port
BASF Colombia raw materials embarkment port
Du Pont private embarkment port
Cemex cement port.
Dole Packing house
Colombian Navy Steelworks port.
Since the 17th century the bay has been connected to the
Magdalena River by the , built by Governor Pedro Zapata de Mendoza. After Colombian independence, the canal was abandoned and growing centralization left the city without resources to fund the vital artery, the last important maintenance work being done in the 50s during Laureano Gómez's administration. Some improvements were made by local authorities in the 1980s, but they were insufficient because of technical objections from the central government that decreed that the "maintenance" of the canal did not fall under the jurisdiction of the local government. From then on, maintenance of the canal was more or less delayed, though it is still functional. Dique Canal
Many Caribbean and Cartagenian political leaders argue that this state of affairs might change with a return to pre-independence funding and tax system schemes and that under such systems the canal would be maintained properly and even expanded, benefiting the national economy.
The city has many public and private libraries:
The Universidad de Cartagena José Fernández
Madrid Library: Started in 1821 when the university opened as the " and Ithsmus". Serves mainly the students and faculty of this university but anyone can use its services. University of Magdalena
Divided in buildings across the city being assigned to the Faculties it serves accordingly each area. The main building is in C. de la Universidad 64 and the second biggest section is located in Av. Jose Vicente Mogollón 2839.
The Bartolomé Calvo Library: Founded in 1843 and established in its current place in 1900 is one of the main libraries of the
and the biggest of the city. Its address is: C. de la Inquisición, 23. Caribbean Coast
The History Academy of Cartagena de Indias Library: Opened in 1903, many of its books date from more than a century before from donations of members and benefactors. Its entrance is more restricted due to secure handling procedure reasons as ancient books require, but it can be requested in the Academy office in Plaza de Bolivar 112.
of Bolívar Library: Opened in 1985 Although small in general size, its sections on engineering and electronics are immense and its demand is mostly on this area, being located in Camino de Arroyohondo 1829. Technological University
The American Hispanic Culture Library: Opened in 1999, it already existed a smaller version without Spanish funding in the Casa de España since the early 1940s but in 1999 was enlarged to serve Latin America and the Caribbean in the old convent of
. It specializes on Hispanic Culture and History and is a continental epicenter of seminaries on history and restoration of buildings, the restoration of the convent and the enlargement of the library was and still is a personal proyect of Juan Carlos I of Santo Domingo who visits it regularly. Its located in Plaza Santo Domingo 30, but its entrance is in C. Gastelbondo 52. Spain
Jorge Artel Library: Opened in 1997, serves the area of the southwest districts of the city, it is mostly for children. It is located in Camino del Socorro 222
Balbino Carreazo Library: Located in Pasacaballos, a suburban neighborhood of the southeastern part of the city, serves mostly the suburbs of Pasacaballos, Ararca, Leticia del Dique and Matunilla. It is located in Plaza de Pasacaballos 321
District Libraries: Although small, this system goes grassroots to neighborhoods circulating books, generally each district library has around 5000 books.
Theatres and concert halls
Performing arts have always been a big part of
's cultural life. The first carnivals and western theaters that served in Cartagena New Granada operated here, more precisely on today's Calle del Coliseo. This was an activity patronized by the Viceroy Manuel de Guirior and Antonio Caballero y Góngora, who, like their predecessors, spent most of the time of their mandates ruling in Cartagena de Indias.
Heredia Theatre: Opened in 1911, inspired by the Teatro Tacón of
, was designed by Jose Enrique Jaspe. After years of abandonment, it was reborn in the 1990s and continues to be a cultural center. It is located in Plazuela de La Merced 5. Havana
Universidad de Cartagena Aula Maxima: Although in existence since the early 19th century, it is used mainly for debates which began in the late 1920s, and it still has that use today.
The city has registered more than 100 companies of theater and traditional or contemporary dancing and is regularly visited by ballet and opera companies. Many of these local theater and traditional companies have their own auditoriums, among them: Reculá del Ovejo House, Teatro Contemporaneo Cartagenero, Ekobios, and Colegio del Cuerpo.
World Heritage site
The port, the fortresses and the group of monuments of
Cartagena were selected in 1984 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as significant to the heritage of the world, having the most extensive fortifications in South America. They are significant, too, for being located in a bay that is part of the Caribbean Sea. A system of zones divides the city into three neighborhoods: San Sebastian and Santa Catalina with the cathedral and many palaces where the wealthy lived and the main government buildings functioned; or Santo Toribio, where merchants and the middle class lived; and Getsemani, the suburban popular quarters. San Diego
In popular culture
In that movie, Michael Douglas's character refers to it as Cartage(ny)a. This has largely been adopted by tourists and is an irritant to the locals. The "N" in
is solid. Cartagena
Gabriel García Marquez's novel Love in the Time of Cholera although set in an unnamed city, is obviously in
. Also set in Cartagena , partially or totally, are other novels of his, among them The General in his Labyrinth and Strange Pilgrims. Cartagena
The first chapter of Brian Jacques' novel The Angel's Command takes place in
in 1628. Cartagena
The 2007 film movie Love in the Time of Cholera was filmed in
In the jazz club scene from the (2004) film Collateral, Tom Cruise's hitman character asks about a soon-to-be victim's contacts with drug cartel members in
, before shooting him in the head from point-blank range Cartagena
Burn! (1969), with Marlon Brando, was filmed in
The 1986 film The Mission with Robert De Niro was filmed in
Cartagena and . Brazil
The poem "Románc" by Sándor Kányádi talks about the beauty of
A fictionalized version of the 1697 raid on
is chronicled in the novel Captain Blood. Cartagena
The second story in Nam Le's award-winning book of short fiction, The Boat (2008) is called "
Cartagena" and set in . Colombia in the story is more an idea than a place. Cartagena
Orlando Cabrera, professional baseball player for the Cleveland Indians.
Julio Teheran, professional baseball player for the Atlanta Braves.