Ajyad Fortress

The Ajyad Fortress (Turkish: Ecyad Kalesi) was an Ottoman citadel which stood on a hill overlooking the Grand Mosque of Mecca, in what is now Saudi Arabia. Built in the late 18th century, it was destroyed by the Saudi government in 2002 for commercial development of the Mecca Royal Hotel Clock Tower, sparking global outcry. 


In 1781 (or 1777 or 1780, according to some sources), the fortress was built in order to protect the Kaaba and Islamic shrines in Mecca from bandits and invaders. The fort covered some 23,000 m2 (250,000 sq ft) on Bulbul Mountain (a spur of Jebel Kuda) overlooking the Masjid al-Haram from the south.

In early 2002, the Ajyad Fortress was demolished and most of Bulbul mount was levelled,in order to clear the area for the $533 million construction project of Abraj Al Bait Towers. Opening in 2012, the complex of multiple high-rise buildings consists of apartments, a twin-tower five-star hotel, restaurants, and a shopping centre, built by the Saudi Binladin Group


The destruction of the historic structure stirred both domestic and international protest.The Turkish Foreign Minister İsmail Cem İpekçi and other institutions tried to prevent the demolition. The Turkish Democratic Left Party (DSP) Deputy Ertuğrul Kumcuoğlu even suggested a boycott on travelling to Saudi Arabia. The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism condemned the obliteration of the fortress, comparing the act to the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan, and accusing the Saudi authorities of "continuing with their policy of demolishing Ottoman heritages."

The French news agency Agence France-Presse (AFP) quoted Saudi Islamic affairs Minister Saleh al-Shaikh as saying "no-one has the right to interfere in what comes under the state's authority". In reference to the housing component of the plan, al-Sheikh added that it was intended to house pilgrims to Mecca, and said "this is in the interest of Muslims all over the world".

However, the destruction of this and other historic sites fueled criticism of the Saudis, and plans were made to rebuild the castle, as ordered by the King in 2001:

King Fahd has given his approval for the King Abdul Aziz Endowment for the Holy Haram and for the preparation of the project site by removing the hill and the castle. The king instructed that the castle should be preserved in full by rebuilding it," the minister said in a statement.

A 1/25 scale model of the fortress is included along with other architectural models at the Miniatürk miniature park in Istanbul, Turkey.
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